The Lumley Collection

The Lumley Collection was the largest in Elizabethan England and was housed in three of the residences of John, 1st Baron Lumley (c.1533–1609) – his house on Tower Hill as well as Lumley Castle and Nonsuch Palace. The collection included portraits of 196 contemporary sitters, and (unlike most inventories of the period) often named the painter.

The nucleus of the collection was acquired by John Lumley from his father-in-law, Henry Fitzalan, 19th Earl of Arundel. A dozen or so pictures from the collection of the Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester were incorporated into the Lumley Collection. The collection included amongst others a portrait of Lady Jane Grey and a full length portrait of Anne Boleyn.

Lord Lumley was the uncle of Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, a prominent connoisseur in the early 17th century. Arundel inherited some of Lumley's collection of paintings, including the portrait of the Duchess of Milan, now in the National Gallery. However, a considerable portion of the collection went to Lumley Castle and remained there, eventually being inherited by the Earls of Scarbrough. The Lumley Collection of paintings was largely dispersed in sales that took place in 1785 and 1807. Many works from the inventories can be recognised by distinctive cartellini (trompe-l'œil representations of inscribed labels) added to some – but not all – of the paintings.

The Lumley Inventories

The Lumley inventories are a group of inventories documenting the extensive collections of paintings, books, sculptures, silver and furniture accumulated by John, 1st Baron Lumley (c.1533–1609). The most celebrated of these, a manuscript volume which incorporates a considerable amount of heraldic and genealogical material as well as the inventory itself, is sometimes known as the «Red Velvet Book» (from its later binding), and sometimes simply as «the Lumley Inventory». It is often dated to 1590, although it is in reality a more complex composite volume including material dating from 1586 to 1595. Further inventories were drawn up for purposes of probate on Lord Lumley's death in 1609; and others when parts of the collection were sold in the 18th and early 19th centuries.

A note of Pyctures caryinge the fowrme of the whole Statuary.

King Richard II[]

and

Ralph Lumley[]

Leeds Castle[]

The Statuary of Kinge Richard the seconde, delyvering the wryte of Parliament to Ralphe the first Barron of Lumley, called by him the eight yeare of his Reigne.

The Lumley Inventory

King Henry VIII; King Henry VII by Hans Holbein the Younger

The Statuary of King Henry the eight and his father Kinge Henry the seaventh joyned together, doone in white and blacke by Haunce Holbyn.

The Lumley Inventory

The Statuary of his sonne King Edward the sixt drawne by

The Lumley Inventory

The Statuary of the Duches of Myllayne, afterwards Duches of Lorreyn daughter to [Christierne] king of Denmarke doone by Haunce Holbyn.

The Lumley Inventory

William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke

William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke

Collection of the Earl of Pembroke[]

The Statuary of Willm Harbert first Earle of Pembroke, created by King Edward the sixt Lo: steward to Quene Elizabeth

The Lumley Inventory

[The Statuarie of Robte Earle of Sussex Anno 1593.][]

The Lumley Inventory

PICTURES OF A SMALLER SCANTLINGE.

Of King Edw: 6. being Prince.

The Lumley Inventory

Miniature of Queen Mary I

1555

Gerlach Flicke

Durham College[]

Of Quene Marye, drawne by Garlicke.

The Lumley Inventory

And agayne, as she was the xxxth yeare of her Reigne.[]

The Lumley Inventory

John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk[]

Of the first Duke of Northefolke Hawarde.

The Lumley Inventory

Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel

Of Phillip his sonne afterwards Earle of Arundell.

The Lumley Inventory

Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel[]

Of the last Earle of Arundell Fitzallen, drawne twise by the famous paynter Steven.

The Lumley Inventory

Henry FitzAlan, Lord Maltravers[]

Of his sonne the Lord Mautrevers.

The Lumley Inventory

Of the second Earle of Essex [Robert] Devereux, Mr of the horse, doone by Seigar.

The Lumley Inventory

[Of the firste Earle of Shroesburie.]

The Lumley Inventory

Henry Parker, 10th Baron Morley (1476/1480/1481 – 3 December 1553/1556)

Of the old Lo: Henry Morley, A° 1523 done in water color by Albert Duer.

The Lumley Inventory

 

Of the Vycount Mountague Browne.[]

The Lumley Inventory

John Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley

1563[]

Steven van der Meulen

Private Collection[][]

Of yor Lo: doone by Steven.

The Lumley Inventory

Peregrine Bertie, 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby[]

Of the first Lo: Willoughbye [Perigrine] Bartue.

The Lumley Inventory

Of the first Lo: Wentworth, Lo: Chamberleyne to K: Edw: 6.

The Lumley Inventory

Collections: a second cartellino (now painted out) below the present one, beneath the inscription in black, is probably a Lumley cartellino (see below) and therefore the picture should be identical with that in the inventory of 1590, 'of the first Lo: Wentworth, Lo: Chamberleyne to K: Edw: 6' (Walpole Society, VI, 1918, p. 23); there is no record of when it left Lumley Castle; probably by descent through a number of possible branches of the Wentworth family to William Wentworth, 2nd Earl of Strafford of Wentworth Castle, d.s.p. 1791; first recorded at Wentworth Castle in 1770 (Additional MS 5726, E5, f. 12(3)); thence by descent to Captain B. C. Vernon-Wentworth; Wentworth sale, Christie's, 13 November 1919 (lot 65) Tudor & Jacobean Portraits, by Roy C. Strong, National Portrait Gallery

Of the last Lord Braye.[]

The Lumley Inventory

Sir Nicholas Carew[]

Workshop or follower of Hans Holbein the Younger[]

Buccleuch Collection[]

Of Sr Nichls Carewe Mr of the horse to K: H: 8.

The Lumley Inventory

Sir Henry Guildford (1489–1532)

Of Sir Henry Guilfourd Coumptroller to K: H: 8. [drawne by Haunce Holbyn.]

The Lumley Inventory

Erasmus of Rotterdam (28 October 1466 – 12 July 1536)

Of Erasmus of Roterdame, all this eight drawne by Haunce Holbyn.

The Lumley Inventory

Allegorical portrait of Sir John Luttrell by Hans Eworth

Of Sir John Lutterel, who died of the sweat in K. Edw: 6: tyme.

The Lumley Inventory

There seems to be general consensus that this is the painting that was in the Lumley Collection, though it is by Hans Eworth and this is not noted in the inventory, and the portrait does not bear a cartellinoBoth the National Trust and Leo Gooch (A Complete Pattern of Nobility, p. 141) point to this as the portrait that was in the Lumley Collection.

Thomas Wyndham (1508–1554)

Vice-Admiral Thomas Wyndham[]

1550[][]

Hans Eworth[][][]

The Collection of the Earl of Radnor, Longford Castle[][]

Of Mr Thomas Wyndeham drowned in [the Sea returneinge from Ginney.]

The Lumley Inventory

There seems to be general consensus that this is the painting that was in the Lumley Collection, though it is by Hans Eworth and this is not noted in the inventory, and the portrait does not bear a cartellino. Nor does it carry the inscription noticed by the Literary Cabinet: «Mr. Thomas Wyndham. Good half length, a robust figure in green, with a red sash and a gun in his hand. Aged 42 MDL.» (Could the age and year be information also included on a possibly now lost cartellino, and not an inscription at all?) Both Lionel Cust (The Lumley Inventories, p. 24) and Leo Gooch (A Complete Pattern of Nobility, p. 141), and presumably also Rocco Caravato in Shakespeare, Caravaggio, and the Indistinct Regard point to this as the portrait that was in the Lumley Collection.

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba (29th October 1507 – 11th December 1582)

Of the Duke of Alva, governor in Flaunders, doone by Anthony Moorey.

The Lumley Inventory

Katherine Parr 

The Northwick Park Portrait

Of Quene Katherin Parre, last wife to K: H: 8.

The Lumley Inventory

[Of the olde Marquesse of Dorcett syster to Sir Edw: Wotton.]

The Lumley Inventory

Margaret Beauchamp, Countess of Shrewsbury (1404 – 14 June 1467)

[Of the Counties of Shroesburie 2 wyffe to the first Earle of Shroesburie, eldest daughter to Richard Earle of Warwicke, Beachampe.]

The Lumley Inventory

Elizabeth FitzGerald, Countess of Lincoln

Of the Countesse of Lincolne, daughter to the Earle of Kildare.

The Lumley Inventory

Anne Russell, Countess of Warwick[]

 

Of the Countesse of Warwicke, daughter of the Earle of Bedfourd.

The Lumley Inventory

(This portrait is apparently from the Woburn collection, another collection which employed the cartellini. I am leaving it up for now. It will at least give us an idea as to what image to look for, though I suppose that is also true for a great many others whose portraits were in the Lumley collection, and whose other portraits are not and will not be represented on this page. Still, so it shall be. I will replace this portrait of Anne Russell, Countess of Warwick, with the one that was in the Lumley collection should I find it.)

Frances Walsingham, Countess of Essex (1567 – 17 February 1633)

Frances Walsingham, Countess of Essex

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco

Of the Countesse of Essex wife to the 2 Earle of Essex and widow to sir Phillip Sidney.

The Lumley Inventory

(Identification is based on: This does look like a Lumley cartellino. Probably the same lady as in this portrait. Of the unidentified ladies in the Lumley inventory, only Frances Walsingham, Countess of Essex, was pregnant in this period. I did also consider Mary Kytson, Lady Darcy of Chiche, later Lady Rivers, but she has two authenticated portraits here and here, and I thought the nose in particular dissimilar. Though neither Mary Kytson, Lady Darcy of Chiche, later Lady Rivers, or Mary Cavendish, Countess of Shrewsbury, were known to have been pregnant in this time period, I did consider the latter also. Her portrait can be found here and here. Here it was the eyes I thought was markedly different (with all due consideration for difference of painters and technique etc.). In this well-known portrait of Frances Walsingham, Countess of Essex, you can clearly see that she has the same nose and eyes. Plus, this portrait has been traditionally identified as Frances Walsingham.

I might be retreading old ground here, but none of the above information was noted on the website for the portrait, which calls it simply Portrait of a Lady.)

Katherine Grey, Countess of Hertford (25 August 1540 – 26 January 1568)

Of the Lady Katheryne Graye, married to the Earle of Hertfourd.

The Lumley Inventory

"The La Kathe'/ Graye. / Wyfe of Therle of / Hertford" is inscribed on the reverse of this miniature by Levina Teerlinc, c. 1560[]

Notice the absolute similarity of the descriptions. Not the spelling, the spelling on the back of the miniature seems even 'older'.

An identical spelling can be found in a document from around precisely 1553. After the death of King Edward VI the contents of the palace were compared to an inventory of 1547, and the absence of the portrait of Christina, Duchess of Milan was explained thusly: This Table Therle of Arundell hathe of the kinges maiesties gift as he saithe. (A Complete Pattern of Nobility by Leo Gooch, p. 94)

(The Earl of Arundel was of course Jane Lumley's father.)

But the wording in the Lumley collection and on the back of the miniature is practically precisely the same.

Not only that, but this manner of wording of the identification is absolutely unique for Lady Katherine Grey, Countess of Hertford in the Lumley inventories. Almost as if they were ... copying a label.

No other lady is identified as [First name] [Maiden name] [(Husband's) Title]. in the inventories.

Even Jane Lumley is not identified by her Christian name there, she is described as Of yor Lo: first wife daughter to the old Earle of Arundell [Fitzallen] drawne by Steven., versus the actual cartellino which reads Jane Fitzalen, daughter to Henry Earle off Arundell, first wife to John Lord Lumley.[])

The inventorist was probably more familiar with his employer's first wife than her first cousin, enabling him to 'go off script' as it were.

If this were the miniature that were in the Lumley collection, a standard Lumley cartellino would have ruined it, covering nearly or all of the entire miniature. A miniature is usually by the size of a big coin or a small snowball.

There was at least one other miniature in the Lumley Collection, that of Queen Mary I Tudor (shown above) by Gerlach Flicke. That one does have a cartellino, but it probably took considerably less space to write Queene Marie[] than the description of who Lady Katherine Grey, Countess of Hertford, was.

Many of the old Lumley cartellini have become illegible. If, however, the portrait of Anne Russell, Countess of Warwick, was indeed a part of the Lumley collection Anne Countess of Warwick Wife to Ambrose Dudlye Earle we see that the wording of that inscription correlates pretty closely with the wording of the inscription on the back of the miniature of Katherine Grey, Countess of Hertford. However, Ambrose Dudley was married to two women named Anne, so they probably wanted to clarify which one she was.

Katherine Grey, Countess of Hertford's inscription handily had all of that information already. A secondary reason might have been that the handwriting was very small and they had to sound out each word, though without actually seeing the inscription on the back of the miniature, that is hard to say.

It would appear that the portrait of Anne Russell, Countess of Warwick, above, belonged to a different collection that employed the cartellini, the Woburn collection. Any basis for comparison is therefore moot. A more relevant comparison is perhaps therefore the cartellino on the portrait of Sir Nicholas Carew.

Of Sr Nichls Carewe Mr of the horse to K: H: 8.

Sr Nicholas Carewe Master of the horse to Kinge Henry y 8.

As we see, the inscription on the cartellino and the entry in the inventory corresponds extremely closely, just as it is my suggestion that the inscription on the back of the miniature (its variant of Lumley cartellino) does to the entry in the Lumley inventory.

Of the first Duke of Northefolke Hawarde.

Jhon Howarde the firste Duke of Norfolk of that name.

John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk – Lumley Cartellino

Of the Duke of Alva, governor in Flaunders, doone by Anthony Moorey.

Fernandes de Toledo Duke of Alva ; 1557 . comm(?)

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba – Lumley Cartellino

So one way to test my hypothesis that this was the painting of Katherine Grey, Countess of Hertford registered in the Lumley Collection would be to compare the handwriting on the back of the miniature with the handwriting on the surviving, still legible cartellini.

Another would be to compare the handwriting on the back of the miniature with surviving samples of the handwriting of Jane FitzAlan, Lady Lumley, to whom it was surely a gift directly from her first cousin, Lady Katherine Grey, if my hypothesis is right. For the importance of miniature gift-giving in female friendships see The Feminine Dynamic in English Art, 1485-1603: Women as Consumers, Patrons and Painters by Susan E. James.

An identical spelling of the word Therle (the Earl) can be found found in a document written not long after the death of Edward VI in 1553. At the same time, the description must necessarily date to after the marriage of Lady Katherine Grey to Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford in December 1560, otherwise she would have hardly been described as being his wife. Furthermore, it seems reasonable that it dates to after news of that marriage became public, in 1561.

This time period, 1553–1661, corresponds very closely as we see with the creation of the miniature 1555–1560.

Furthermore, the inscription seems to predate certainly the spelling in the inventory, and quite possibly it predates the other cartellini themselves.

It is entirely possible the inscription on the back of the miniature is in Jane Lumley's own hand.

Jane FitzAlan, Baroness Lumley

1563[]

Steven van der Meulen

Of yor Lo: first wife daughter to the old Earle of Arundell [Fitzallen] drawne by Steven.

The Lumley Inventory

Mary Wotton, Lady Guildford (1499-1544+)

Of the La: Guilfourd wife to Sir Henry Guilfourd Coumptroller, drawne by Haunce Holbyn.

The Lumley Inventory

 

(In its description of the portrait, the Saint Louis Art Museum expresses some doubt whether it was this portrait or the well-known copy (for a long time assumed to be the original ) now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art which is the one recorded in the Lumley collection.

It is perhaps worth noting that the Lumley inventory never states the identity of a copy as painted by the artist of the original.

In the case of the portrait of Margaret Wotton, Marchioness of Dorset, for instance, we have a sketch in the Royal Collection by Holbein, so the original must have been by him, yet the copy shown here above and which belonged to the Lumley colletion was not described as being by Haunce Holbyn.

Similarly with the portrait of Jane Seymour recorded in the Lumley collection. In all probability this was a copy of the famous one by Hans Holbein, yet it was not described as being by Haunce Holbyn in the inventory.)

Notes on other portraits in the Lumley Collection

The Statuaryes of xvien Auncestors of yor Lo: lyneally descending from the Conquest unto yor self.

According to Leo Gooch (A Complete Pattern of Nobility, p. 111) the first fifteen portraits belong to the Lumley Trustees and are on loan to Leeds Castle, those of John Lumley and his second wife Elizabeth are at Sandbeck Park. One ancestor, Sir Roger, has been left out.

The Statuary of the Lorde Darneley [afterwards K: of Scott] and his brother Charles Stewarde in one table. 

According to Leo Gooch (A Complete Pattern of Nobility, p. 119) it is this painting in the Royal Collection. The Royal Collection makes no mention of this, however.

[The Statuary of Robert Dudley Earle of Leicester.]

According to Leo Gooch (A Complete Pattern of Nobility, p. 119) this painting is now at Parham Park. This one? There is no cartellino as far as I can see, however.

Of Quene Marye, drawne by Garlicke.

Of Quene Elizabeth as as she was comyng first to the Crowne.

And agayne, as she was the xxxth yeare of her Reigne.

Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. Of a severe countenance. The Literary Cabinet

Like this one? Queen Elizabeth I (1533–1603) by Hans Eworth (c.1520–after 1578), Ancient House, Museum of Thetford Life

This link is no longer working, but google results indicate that it has once led to something interesting in this regard:

http://www.historicalportraits.com/Gallery.asp?Page=Item&ItemID=1288&Desc=Elizabeth-I-%7C--Anglo-Flemish-School

It is possible that the link above was once supposed to contain information about this painting:

https://philipmould.com/artworks/2435-anglo-flemish-anglo-flemish-school-portrait-of-queen-elizabeth-i-1533-1603-full-length/

Of Thomas his sonne the 4 Duke of Northfolke.

No known portrait of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk with the cartellino exists today, according to the Royal Collection.

Of the Lo: Robert Dudley, Mr of the horse to Quene Elizabeth.

Of him after he was Earle of Leicester Lo: Steward, twise drawne bye Seigar.

One of these is in a private collection, according to the Weiss Gallery – Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (1532 – 1588) circa 1587 Attributed to Sir William Segar

The Earl of Leicester, by William Segar | All Things Robert Dudley

Article:

The identity of ‘the famous paynter Steven’ Not Steven van der Meulen but Steven van Herwijck

Of Sir Thomas Moore, Lo: Chauncellor, [drawne by Haunce Holbyn.]

Sir Thomas More

[Margaret daughter to Duke of Anjoy and wife to K. Henry 6th.]

Margaret of Anjou

Other Collections which Employed the Cartellini

PORTRAIT OF THE HON. DOROTHY LATIMER, WIFE OF THOMAS CECIL, LATER 1ST EARL OF EXETER HOLDING A PENDANT DEPICTING PERSEUS (1549-1608) by Master of the Countess of Warwick – Sotheby's

Portrait of a young man, identified as John Brydges, 1st Baron Chandos (1492–1557) – Christie's

Frances Clinton, Lady Chandos by Hieronymus Custodis – The collection of the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey

Elizabeth Brydges, later Lady Kennedy, daughter of Giles Brydges, 3rd Baron Chandos and maid of honour to Elizabeth I of England, aged 14 – The collection of the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey

Sir Nicholas Throckmorton – Formerly in the collection of the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey, now at the National Portrait Gallery | NPG 3800

Sir Edward Rogers – Formerly in the collection of the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey, now at the National Portrait Gallery | NPG 3792

Edward Fiennes de Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln (1512-1585) – Formerly in the collection of the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey, sold by Christie's

Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford

Lord Edward Russell (1551-1572), Eldest son of 2nd Earl of Bedford – The collection of the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey. Copy by George Perfect Harding in the National Portrait Gallery

Portraits that can be found again in the Arundel Collection

Except for the portraits of the Duchess of Milan, Sir Henry Guildford, Lady Guildford and Erasmus by Hans Holbein the Younger and the watercolour of Henry Parker, lord Morley by Albrecht Dürer (all shown above) all of these are untraced today.

I would have started looking for them on the continent.

 

The Statuary of the Duches of Myllayne, afterwards Duches of Lorreyn daughter to [Christierne] king of Denmarke doone by Haunce Holbyn.

Christina of Denmark (1521–1590), Duchess  of Milan, then Duchess of Lorraine

193. The Duchess of Loraine, life-size.

The Statuary of the Duches of Parma, Regent in Flaunders, Base doughter to the Emperor Charles the fiveth.

Margaret of Parma (1522–1586), Governor of the Netherlands

436. Margaret of Parma.

[Of Sigismond Kinge of Poland sonne to John Kinge of Swethland.]

Sigismund III Vasa (1566–1632)

694. Sigismund, King of Poland.

Of the Duke of Richemond, base sonne to K: H: 8.

Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset (15 June 1519 – 23 July 1536)

642. The Duke of Richmond. Wood.

Of the old Lo: Henry Morley, A° 1523 done in water color by Albert Duer.

Henry Parker, 10th Baron Morley (1476/1480/1481 – 3 December 1553/1556)

111. Henry Morley. Water-colour. This portrait is found in the Lumley Inventory of 1590: it is now in the British Museum.

Of Sir Henry Guilfourd Coumptroller to K: H: 8. [drawne by Haunce Holbyn.]

Sir Henry Guildford (1489–1532)

185. Portrait of Sir Henry Guldford. Royal Collection, Windsor.

Of Erasmus of Roterdame, all this eight drawne by Haunce Holbyn.

Erasmus of Rotterdam (28 October 1466 – 12 July 1536)

174. Erasmus.

Of [Isabel] wife to Charles the Vth Empor, mother to K: Phillip.

Isabella of Portugal (1503–1539), Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Spain, Germany, Italy, Naples and Sicily and Duchess of Burgundy

791. Isabella, wife of Charles V.

[Of Isabel daughter to Phillip the second K: of Spayne.]

Isabella Clara Eugenia of Austria (1566–1633), Infanta of Spain, Regent of the Spanish Netherlands

433. Portrait of the Infanta Eugenia Clara. Regent of the Spanish Netherlands.

Of the Duchesse of Savoye.

Catherine Michelle of Spain (1567–1597), Duchess of Savoy

432. Portrait of the Infanta.

Of the La: Guilfourd wife to Sir Henry Guilfourd Coumptroller, drawne by Haunce Holbyn.

Mary Wotton, Lady Guildford (1499-1544+)

186. Portrait of his Wife (Lady Guldford). Vanderbilt Collection, New York.

Of Shores wyfe concubyne to K: Edw: 4.

Jane Shore (c. 1445 – c. 1527)

714. Joan Shorr, advocate.*

* One Italian transcription reads Joan Shorn, advocato, which made me wonder if it were a misreading of John, and it instead referred to a portrait of John Schorne or something similar.

The Arundel Inventory of 1655 has precisely one entry for Joan, however, this one, and 27 involving the name John, making me believe that the chances of a misreading are slim.

For a discussion of portraits of Jane Shore see our Lady Jane Grey page and our The Anglesey Abbey Portrait page.